The heat expert was right. 2019, Historical data It was suggested that the average daily temperature for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics and Paralympics ranged from 28.2 ° C to 29.7 ° C and the relative humidity was 65%. These were certainly the hottest Olympic games on record.
Archer has Collapsed, Tennis player Have got I was afraid they would die And volleyball players I burned my foot On the sand. However, for many Paralympians, these conditions present significant additional challenges.
The complexity and severity of the Paralympic disability, combined with the requirements of a particular area (type, intensity, duration, mode of exercise, environmental conditions), Specific susceptibility For heat related issues. The degree to which athletes respond physiologically to heat also varies greatly within a particular disability group.
Specific disability group
According to a survey Spinal cord injury, Cuts, multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy can be the most afflicted in the heat.
When we exercise, about 75-80% of the energy our body consumes is released as heat. The problem for some Paralympic athletes is that they are sweating or have a reduced ability to sweat. Others can generate more fever than Olympic athletes doing the same activity.
Athletes with SCI cannot sweat or control blood flow in the skin. Their injury level.. The higher the injury is above the spinal cord, the smaller the injury. Body surface area It can sweat.For example, the body temperature of a wheelchair rugby player with a lot of spinal cord injury It is shown It grows at a much faster rate than other disabled players.
Wheelchair rugby games are played indoors at moderate temperatures (18 ° C-21 ° C), even for athletes with a lot of spinal cord injuries. Cover less distance Pushes slower (on average about 10% slower) than other disabled teammates (17% less). Less physical effort means less heat generation than your teammates. However, sweating and blood flow through the skin make it difficult to dissipate this heat, causing core body temperature to rise much faster.
Athletes with amputated limbs have a small body surface area and can remove heat. in the meantime, Sweat accumulates Located in the prosthesis socket, it can lead to increased blisters, skin condition and discomfort.
Athletes with multiple sclerosis May be again Generally, it is hard to sweat and cannot withstand heat. Decreased muscle coordination and involuntary movements and cramps in cerebral palsy athletes mean that they too can get hotter and faster when exercising.They also have a more difficult time The pace of their efforts, This is even more important in hot conditions. Case studies show that some of these athletes Cool climate, There is a risk of falling at the end of the race.
Heat adaptation and cooling strategy
Like the Olympic athletes Heat adaptation Paralympians may help prepare their body Deal with the heat.. This includes training in heat chambers and greenhouse tents and warm baths after exercise.
However, research on the interests of Paralympians in particular is limited. Each individual should be carefully monitored to ensure that exposure to heat has proven to be beneficial rather than harmful.
One of the main things that heat adaptation aims to help is to get you sweating faster and faster. As sweat evaporates, the surface of the skin and the core of the body cool. As shown above, athletes with SCI have to fight their large surface area. body It can’t sweat.They may experience Cardiovascular benefitsHowever, adaptation does not induce beneficial sweating.
Moreover, Travel restrictions During the pandemic, especially in the early days of the pandemic, athletes were also prevented from working in special heat chambers. This may have affected athletes at high risk of COVID who needed to significantly reduce their interaction with others.
When the event starts, there are many things It can help: Fan, mist, ice vest, ice towel, water soak, ice slash. Athletes often use them in combination before and after competitions and during cooling breaks scheduled for events.
Each of these strategies must be practiced before being used in competition. You also need to carefully consider the logistics needed to make sure you have what you need. It is not a good idea to cool the hands of wheelchair athletes before the race. Numb hands do not help with dexterity.
Some sports organizations for the disabled are clear heat policy.International Tennis Federation rules Wheelchair tennis We usually put a lot of breaks in our event and training schedules, and rescheduling our events during the cooler hours of the day as needed.
Similarly, teams such as the Paralympic GB have spent a lot of time and money preparing athletes physically and mentally, but other national bodies do not have the same level of access to funding, facilities and expertise. .. Even within the Paralympic GB Some sports, such as wheelchair rugby, are considered unlikely to be medals.This usually means less funding and, as a result, less preparatory support for the tournament.
The conditions in Tokyo may be overwhelmingly hot and humid. However, those who participated in the 2020 Paralympics would have had to overcome many hurdles before reaching Japan.Take British power lifter Ali Jawad, two amputees athlete Overcome the setbacks of Crohn’s disease.These are athletes who are determined to show the world Anything is possible..
Quote: Tokyo Paralympics: August 24, 2021 https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-08-tokyo-paralympics-paralympians-affected.html Impact of the Paralympic heat (August 24, 2021)
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